TWENTY-NINTH LEGISLATURE, 2018
STATE OF HAWAII
A BILL FOR AN ACT
relating to environmental protection.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF HAWAII:
SECTION 1. The legislature finds that plastic marine debris is fouling Hawaii's beaches and the ocean. Plastic marine debris is essentially indestructible. It does not go away over time, but breaks down into smaller and smaller fragments, especially on beaches where it is exposed to sunlight and wave action. These smaller fragments, referred to as microplastics (less than five millimeters, or about the size of a sesame seed and smaller), are much more difficult to remove and persist forever. Therefore, in order to reduce plastic marine debris from Hawaii's beaches and ocean, it is important where feasible to remove that debris before it breaks down. Both larger and smaller pieces of plastic marine debris have significant negative impacts on the environment and contribute to the potential death of marine animals and bird populations through ingestion. This poisonous food chain impacts all species, including birds, whales, turtles, seals, corals, small organisms, the fish that form the foundation of the local fishing industry, and ultimately the humans that eat fish. It is estimated that by 2050, there will be more plastic than fish by weight in the world's oceans. Plastic pollution defaces Hawaii's iconic beaches, the very foundation of the State's tourism industry.
While removal of plastic marine debris from beaches is critical to Hawaii's economy and environment, the legislature finds that removal has been hampered by disagreement over which agencies have responsibility and jurisdiction.
Hawaii's counties are charged with "removing and clearing all seaweed, limu, and debris which are likely to create an unsanitary or to otherwise become a public nuisance from the shores and beaches situated within the respective counties", per section 46-12, Hawaii Revised Statutes. The counties to date, however, have not implemented that as a mandate applicable to plastic marine debris on their shores and beaches.
The legislature finds that the department of land and natural resources is charged with managing, administering, and exercising control over public lands, water resources, ocean waters, navigable streams, coastal areas (excluding commercial harbor areas), aquatic life, and coastal programs, according to section 171-3, Hawaii Revised Statutes. The department of land and natural resources has jurisdiction over state marine waters, which extend seaward from the upper reaches of the wash of the waves, including generally beaches, per section 187A-1.5, Hawaii Revised Statutes. Given this jurisdiction, the legislature finds that the department of land and natural resources should be responsible for removing plastic marine debris from beaches frequently and should be provided additional appropriations to carry out this important task.
Since the counties are authorized within their limits to make and enforce all necessary ordinances covering all matters of the collection and disposition of rubbish and garbage, pursuant to section 46-1.5, Hawaii Revised Statutes, the legislature finds the counties should be responsible for disposing promptly at permitted solid waste management systems the plastic marine debris collected by the department of land and natural resources and volunteers.
The purpose of this Act is to help protect the beaches and ocean in Hawaii from plastic marine debris by:
(1) Requiring the department of land and natural resources to remove plastic marine debris from beaches frequently;
(2) Making an appropriation to the department of land and natural resources to carry out this purpose; and
(3) Requiring the counties to dispose at permitted solid waste management systems promptly the marine plastic debris collected by the department of land and natural resources and volunteers.
SECTION 2. Section 187A-1, Hawaii Revised Statutes, is amended by adding two new definitions to be appropriately inserted and to read as follows:
""Marine plastic debris" means any discarded or abandoned plastic found on any beach, any beach access right-of-way, and in any state marine waters.
"Microplastic" means any marine plastic debris with a diameter of five millimeters or less."
SECTION 3. Section 187A-2, Hawaii Revised Statutes, is amended to read as follows:
"§187A-2 Powers and duties of department. (a) The department shall:
(1) Manage and administer the aquatic life and aquatic resources of the State;
(2) Establish and maintain aquatic life propagating station or stations;
(3) Establish, manage, and regulate public fishing areas, artificial reefs, fish aggregating devices, marine life conservation districts, shoreline fishery management areas, refuges, and other areas pursuant to title 12;
(4) Subject to this title, import aquatic life for the purpose of propagating and disseminating the same in the State and the waters subject to its jurisdiction;
(5) Distribute, free of charge, as the department deems to be in the public interest, aquatic life, for the purpose of increasing the food supply of the State; provided that when, in the discretion of the department, the public interest shall not be materially interfered with by so doing, the department may propagate and furnish aquatic life to private parties, upon such reasonable terms, conditions, and prices determined by the department;
(6) Gather and compile information and statistics concerning the habitat and character of, and increase and decrease in, aquatic resources in the State, including the care and propagation of aquatic resources for protective, productive, and aesthetic purposes, and other useful information, which the department deems proper;
all laws relating to the protecting, taking, killing, propagating, or
increasing of aquatic life within the State and the waters subject to its
and from time to time recommend to the governor and legislature such additional
legislation necessary or desirable to implement the objectives of title 12[
(9) Employ best practices to remove plastic marine debris from beaches frequently.
(b) In determining best practices for removing plastic marine debris, the department shall consult and coordinate with experts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration marine debris program, other coastal states, and non-profit organizations regarding the most efficient and effective practices, equipment, and technologies. When formulating best practices, the department shall attempt to remove the most plastic marine debris, especially microplastics, from beaches. The department shall coordinate with the counties for disposal of marine plastic debris. The department shall submit a report of its findings, including the amount of plastic marine debris, and specifically the amount of microplastics, removed in the prior year, to the legislature no later than twenty days prior to the convening of the regular session each year."
SECTION 4. Section 46-1.5, Hawaii Revised Statutes, is amended to read as follows:
"§46-1.5 General powers and limitation of the counties. Subject to general law, each county shall have the following powers and shall be subject to the following liabilities and limitations:
(1) Each county shall have the power to frame and adopt a charter for its own self-government that shall establish the county executive, administrative, and legislative structure and organization, including but not limited to the method of appointment or election of officials, their duties, responsibilities, and compensation, and the terms of their office;
(2) Each county shall have the power to provide for and regulate the marking and lighting of all buildings and other structures that may be obstructions or hazards to aerial navigation, so far as may be necessary or proper for the protection and safeguarding of life, health, and property;
(3) Each county shall have the power to enforce all claims on behalf of the county and approve all lawful claims against the county, but shall be prohibited from entering into, granting, or making in any manner any contract, authorization, allowance payment, or liability contrary to the provisions of any county charter or general law;
(4) Each county shall have the power to make contracts and to do all things necessary and proper to carry into execution all powers vested in the county or any county officer;
(5) Each county shall have the power to:
(A) Maintain channels, whether natural or artificial, including their exits to the ocean, in suitable condition to carry off storm waters;
(B) Remove from the channels, and from the shores and beaches, any debris that is likely to create an unsanitary condition or become a public nuisance; provided that, to the extent any of the foregoing work is a private responsibility, the responsibility may be enforced by the county in lieu of the work being done at public expense;
(C) Construct, acquire by gift, purchase, or by the exercise of eminent domain, reconstruct, improve, better, extend, and maintain projects or undertakings for the control of and protection against floods and flood waters, including the power to drain and rehabilitate lands already flooded;
(D) Enact zoning ordinances providing that lands deemed subject to seasonable, periodic, or occasional flooding shall not be used for residence or other purposes in a manner as to endanger the health or safety of the occupants thereof, as required by the Federal Flood Insurance Act of 1956 (chapter 1025, Public Law 1016); and
(E) Establish and charge user fees to create and maintain any stormwater management system or infrastructure;
(6) Each county shall have the power to exercise the power of condemnation by eminent domain when it is in the public interest to do so;
(7) Each county shall have the power to exercise regulatory powers over business activity as are assigned to them by chapter 445 or other general law;
(8) Each county shall have the power to fix the fees and charges for all official services not otherwise provided for;
(9) Each county shall have the power to provide by ordinance assessments for the improvement or maintenance of districts within the county;
(10) Except as otherwise provided, no county shall have the power to give or loan credit to, or in aid of, any person or corporation, directly or indirectly, except for a public purpose;
(11) Where not within the jurisdiction of the public utilities commission, each county shall have the power to regulate by ordinance the operation of motor vehicle common carriers transporting passengers within the county and adopt and amend rules the county deems necessary for the public convenience and necessity;
(12) Each county shall have the power to enact and enforce ordinances necessary to prevent or summarily remove public nuisances and to compel the clearing or removal of any public nuisance, refuse, and uncultivated undergrowth from streets, sidewalks, public places, and unoccupied lots. In connection with these powers, each county may impose and enforce liens upon the property for the cost to the county of removing and completing the necessary work where the property owners fail, after reasonable notice, to comply with the ordinances. The authority provided by this paragraph shall not be self-executing, but shall become fully effective within a county only upon the enactment or adoption by the county of appropriate and particular laws, ordinances, or rules defining "public nuisances" with respect to each county's respective circumstances. The counties shall provide the property owner with the opportunity to contest the summary action and to recover the owner's property;
(13) Each county shall have the power to enact ordinances deemed necessary to protect health, life, and property, and to preserve the order and security of the county and its inhabitants on any subject or matter not inconsistent with, or tending to defeat, the intent of any state statute where the statute does not disclose an express or implied intent that the statute shall be exclusive or uniform throughout the State;
(14) Each county shall have the power to:
(A) Make and enforce within the limits of the county all necessary ordinances covering all:
(i) Local police matters;
(ii) Matters of sanitation;
(iii) Matters of inspection of buildings;
(iv) Matters of condemnation of unsafe structures, plumbing, sewers, dairies, milk, fish, and morgues; and
(v) Matters of the collection and disposition of rubbish and garbage; provided that each county shall dispose of any marine plastic debris and microplastic collected by the department of land and natural resources or by volunteers;
(B) Provide exemptions for homeless facilities and any other program for the homeless authorized by part XVII of chapter 346, for all matters under this paragraph;
(C) Appoint county physicians and sanitary and other inspectors as necessary to carry into effect ordinances made under this paragraph, who shall have the same power as given by law to agents of the department of health, subject only to limitations placed on them by the terms and conditions of their appointments; and
(D) Fix a penalty for the violation of any ordinance, which penalty may be a misdemeanor, petty misdemeanor, or violation as defined by general law;
(15) Each county shall have the power to provide public pounds; to regulate the impounding of stray animals and fowl, and their disposition; and to provide for the appointment, powers, duties, and fees of animal control officers;
(16) Each county shall have the power to purchase and otherwise acquire, lease, and hold real and personal property within the defined boundaries of the county and to dispose of the real and personal property as the interests of the inhabitants of the county may require, except that:
(A) Any property held for school purposes may not be disposed of without the consent of the superintendent of education;
(B) No property bordering the ocean shall be sold or otherwise disposed of; and
(C) All proceeds from the sale of park lands shall be expended only for the acquisition of property for park or recreational purposes;
(17) Each county shall have the power to provide by charter for the prosecution of all offenses and to prosecute for offenses against the laws of the State under the authority of the attorney general of the State;
(18) Each county shall have the power to make appropriations in amounts deemed appropriate from any moneys in the treasury, for the purpose of:
(A) Community promotion and public celebrations;
(B) The entertainment of distinguished persons as may from time to time visit the county;
(C) The entertainment of other distinguished persons, as well as, public officials when deemed to be in the best interest of the community; and
(D) The rendering of civic tribute to individuals who, by virtue of their accomplishments and community service, merit civic commendations, recognition, or remembrance;
(19) Each county shall have the power to:
(A) Construct, purchase, take on lease, lease, sublease, or in any other manner acquire, manage, maintain, or dispose of buildings for county purposes, sewers, sewer systems, pumping stations, waterworks, including reservoirs, wells, pipelines, and other conduits for distributing water to the public, lighting plants, and apparatus and appliances for lighting streets and public buildings, and manage, regulate, and control the same;
(B) Regulate and control the location and quality of all appliances necessary to the furnishing of water, heat, light, power, telephone, and telecommunications service to the county;
(C) Acquire, regulate, and control any and all appliances for the sprinkling and cleaning of the streets and the public ways, and for flushing the sewers; and
(D) Open, close, construct, or maintain county highways or charge toll on county highways; provided that all revenues received from a toll charge shall be used for the construction or maintenance of county highways;
(20) Each county shall have the power to regulate the renting, subletting, and rental conditions of property for places of abode by ordinance;
(21) Unless otherwise provided by law, each county shall have the power to establish by ordinance the order of succession of county officials in the event of a military or civil disaster;
(22) Each county shall have the power to sue and be sued in its corporate name;
(23) Each county shall have the power to establish and maintain waterworks and sewer works; to collect rates for water supplied to consumers and for the use of sewers; to install water meters whenever deemed expedient; provided that owners of premises having vested water rights under existing laws appurtenant to the premises shall not be charged for the installation or use of the water meters on the premises; to take over from the State existing waterworks systems, including water rights, pipelines, and other appurtenances belonging thereto, and sewer systems, and to enlarge, develop, and improve the same;
(24) (A) Each county may impose civil fines, in addition to criminal penalties, for any violation of county ordinances or rules after reasonable notice and requests to correct or cease the violation have been made upon the violator. Any administratively imposed civil fine shall not be collected until after an opportunity for a hearing under chapter 91. Any appeal shall be filed within thirty days from the date of the final written decision. These proceedings shall not be a prerequisite for any civil fine or injunctive relief ordered by the circuit court;
(B) Each county by ordinance may provide for the addition of any unpaid civil fines, ordered by any court of competent jurisdiction, to any taxes, fees, or charges, with the exception of fees or charges for water for residential use and sewer charges, collected by the county. Each county by ordinance may also provide for the addition of any unpaid administratively imposed civil fines, which remain due after all judicial review rights under section 91-14 are exhausted, to any taxes, fees, or charges, with the exception of water for residential use and sewer charges, collected by the county. The ordinance shall specify the administrative procedures for the addition of the unpaid civil fines to the eligible taxes, fees, or charges and may require hearings or other proceedings. After addition of the unpaid civil fines to the taxes, fees, or charges, the unpaid civil fines shall not become a part of any taxes, fees, or charges. The county by ordinance may condition the issuance or renewal of a license, approval, or permit for which a fee or charge is assessed, except for water for residential use and sewer charges, on payment of the unpaid civil fines. Upon recordation of a notice of unpaid civil fines in the bureau of conveyances, the amount of the civil fines, including any increase in the amount of the fine which the county may assess, shall constitute a lien upon all real property or rights to real property belonging to any person liable for the unpaid civil fines. The lien in favor of the county shall be subordinate to any lien in favor of any person recorded or registered prior to the recordation of the notice of unpaid civil fines and senior to any lien recorded or registered after the recordation of the notice. The lien shall continue until the unpaid civil fines are paid in full or until a certificate of release or partial release of the lien, prepared by the county at the owner's expense, is recorded. The notice of unpaid civil fines shall state the amount of the fine as of the date of the notice and maximum permissible daily increase of the fine. The county shall not be required to include a social security number, state general excise taxpayer identification number, or federal employer identification number on the notice. Recordation of the notice in the bureau of conveyances shall be deemed, at such time, for all purposes and without any further action, to procure a lien on land registered in land court under chapter 501. After the unpaid civil fines are added to the taxes, fees, or charges as specified by county ordinance, the unpaid civil fines shall be deemed immediately due, owing, and delinquent and may be collected in any lawful manner. The procedure for collection of unpaid civil fines authorized in this paragraph shall be in addition to any other procedures for collection available to the State and county by law or rules of the courts;
(C) Each county may impose civil fines upon any person who places graffiti on any real or personal property owned, managed, or maintained by the county. The fine may be up to $1,000 or may be equal to the actual cost of having the damaged property repaired or replaced. The parent or guardian having custody of a minor who places graffiti on any real or personal property owned, managed, or maintained by the county shall be jointly and severally liable with the minor for any civil fines imposed hereunder. Any such fine may be administratively imposed after an opportunity for a hearing under chapter 91, but such a proceeding shall not be a prerequisite for any civil fine ordered by any court. As used in this subparagraph, "graffiti" means any unauthorized drawing, inscription, figure, or mark of any type intentionally created by paint, ink, chalk, dye, or similar substances;
(D) At the completion of an appeal in which the county's enforcement action is affirmed and upon correction of the violation if requested by the violator, the case shall be reviewed by the county agency that imposed the civil fines to determine the appropriateness of the amount of the civil fines that accrued while the appeal proceedings were pending. In its review of the amount of the accrued fines, the county agency may consider:
(i) The nature and egregiousness of the violation;
(ii) The duration of the violation;
(iii) The number of recurring and other similar violations;
(iv) Any effort taken by the violator to correct the violation;
(v) The degree of involvement in causing or continuing the violation;
(vi) Reasons for any delay in the completion of the appeal; and
(vii) Other extenuating circumstances.
The civil fine that is imposed by administrative order after this review is completed and the violation is corrected shall be subject to judicial review, notwithstanding any provisions for administrative review in county charters;
(E) After completion of a review of the amount of accrued civil fine by the county agency that imposed the fine, the amount of the civil fine determined appropriate, including both the initial civil fine and any accrued daily civil fine, shall immediately become due and collectible following reasonable notice to the violator. If no review of the accrued civil fine is requested, the amount of the civil fine, not to exceed the total accrual of civil fine prior to correcting the violation, shall immediately become due and collectible following reasonable notice to the violator, at the completion of all appeal proceedings;
(F) If no county agency exists to conduct appeal proceedings for a particular civil fine action taken by the county, then one shall be established by ordinance before the county shall impose the civil fine;
(25) Any law to the contrary notwithstanding, any county mayor, by executive order, may exempt donors, provider agencies, homeless facilities, and any other program for the homeless under part XVII of chapter 346 from real property taxes, water and sewer development fees, rates collected for water supplied to consumers and for use of sewers, and any other county taxes, charges, or fees; provided that any county may enact ordinances to regulate and grant the exemptions granted by this paragraph;
(26) Any county may establish a captive insurance company pursuant to article 19, chapter 431; and
(27) Each county shall have the power to enact and enforce ordinances regulating towing operations."
SECTION 5. Section 46-12, Hawaii Revised Statutes, is amended to read as follows:
"§46-12 Cleaning shores and
beaches of seaweed, limu, and debris.
The various counties shall be responsible for removing and clearing all
seaweed, limu, and debris which are likely to create an unsanitary condition or
to otherwise become a public nuisance from the shores and beaches situated
within the respective counties; provided that to the extent any of the
foregoing work is a private responsibility, the responsibility may be enforced
by the county in lieu of the work being done at public expense[
provided further that collection of marine plastic debris and microplastic
shall be the responsibility of the department of land and natural resources,
and the county shall dispose of any marine plastic debris or microplastic so
collected at permitted solid waste management systems. For purposes of this section, "marine
plastic debris" and "microplastic" shall have the same meanings
as in section 187A‑1."
SECTION 6. There is appropriated out of the general revenues of the State of Hawaii the sum of $ or so much thereof as may be necessary for fiscal year 2018-2019 for the acquisition of equipment, hiring of necessary staff, and other operating expenses necessary to employ best practices to remove plastic marine debris from beaches frequently.
The sum appropriated shall be expended by the department of land and natural resources for the purposes of this Act.
SECTION 7. Statutory material to be repealed is bracketed and stricken. New statutory material is underscored.
SECTION 8. This Act shall take effect on July 1, 2018.
Marine Plastic Debris; Microplastic; Department of Land and Natural Resources; Counties; Appropriation
Requires department of land and natural resources to collect marine plastic debris. Requires counties to dispose of marine plastic debris collected by the department of land and natural resources or by volunteers. Appropriates funds.
The summary description of legislation appearing on this page is for informational purposes only and is not legislation or evidence of legislative intent.