H.C.R. NO.














Recognizing that the united states constitution only protects rights of natural persons.




     WHEREAS, free and fair elections are essential to American democracy and effective self-governance; and


     WHEREAS, individual persons are recognized as natural persons who actually vote in elections; and


     WHEREAS, corporations are artificial entities that governments create; and


     WHEREAS, corporations do not vote in elections and should not be categorized as persons for purposes related to elections for public office; and


     WHEREAS, corporations are not mentioned in the United States Constitution, as adopted, nor have Congress and the states recognized corporations as legal persons in any subsequent federal constitutional amendment; and


     WHEREAS, the rights protected by the United States Constitution are the rights of natural persons only; and


     WHEREAS, the privileges of artificial entities should be determined by the people through federal, state, or local law, and should not be construed to be inherent or inalienable; and


     WHEREAS, corporations are not and have never been natural persons and therefore are subservient to natural persons and the governments that are their creators; and


     WHEREAS, the profits and institutional survival of large corporations often conflict with the essential needs and rights of natural persons; now, therefore,

     BE IT RESOLVED by the House of Representatives of the Twenty-sixth Legislature of the State of Hawaii, Regular Session of 2012, the Senate concurring, that the Legislature urges Congress to propose an amendment to the United States Constitution for the states' consideration which provides that corporations are not persons under the laws of the United States or any of its jurisdictional subdivisions; and


     BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Legislature supports the adoption of federal, state, and local laws that will regulate, limit, or prohibit contributions and expenditures, including a candidate's own contributions and expenditures, for the purpose of influencing the election of any candidate for public office or any ballot measure in any way; and


     BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Legislature supports the adoption of federal, state, and local government laws that will require public disclosure of any permissible contributions and expenditures; and


     BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Judiciary is urged not to construe the spending of money to influence elections as protected speech under the First Amendment; and


     BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that nothing in this Concurrent Resolution shall be construed as to abridge the freedom of the press; and


     BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that certified copies of this Concurrent Resolution be transmitted to the members of Hawaii's congressional delegation, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the State of Hawaii, Chief Election Officer, and Attorney General.









Report Title: 

Requests the United States Congress to recognize that corporations are not entitled to Constitutional rights and that the Constitution only grants rights to natural persons.