HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES             H.R. NO.              
TWENTIETH LEGISLATURE, 1999                                
STATE OF HAWAII                                            

                     HOUSE  RESOLUTION


 1        WHEREAS, accountability describes a relationship between
 2   two parties in which four conditions apply:  one party expects
 3   the other to perform a service or accomplish a goal; the party
 4   performing the activity accepts the legitimacy of the other's
 5   expectation; the party performing the activity derives some
 6   benefits from the relationship; and the party for whom the
 7   activity is performed has some capacity to affect the other's
 8   benefits; and
10        WHEREAS, accountability is the essence of a contractual
11   relationship in which both parties have obligations and derive
12   benefits.  People can be accountable only if they feel bound by
13   some agreement that establishes a fair exchange of benefits and
14   obligations between two parties; and
16        WHEREAS, throughout history education policy has advanced
17   through incremental or trial and error stages, sometimes called
18   "disjointed incrementalism".  Accountability is an excellent
19   example of this process.  While accountability has recently
20   been "rediscovered" and has gone through yet another
21   transformation and refinement, it actually has a long history
22   of use, misuse, and controversy; and
24        WHEREAS, with the arrival of the 20th century, scientific
25   measurement and appropriate grade placement were featured from
26   1915 to 1930, and this movement overlapped with the 1920s "cult
27   of efficiency", which applied business cost-accounting
28   techniques to the solution of many education problems.  It
29   would be another half-century, however, before educators
30   witnessed the advent of the U.S. accountability movement's
31   bible, Leon Lessinger's book, Every Kid a Winner, which
32   appeared in 1970 and stressed the same kind of cost-accounting
33   strategies that had been popular decades earlier; and
35        WHEREAS, like his predecessors, Lessinger wanted learning
36   stated in quantifiable terms that could be related to cost
37   statements.  However, Lessinger's thinking was also in tune

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 1   with that of his own era, since the 1960s and early 1970s
 2   featured Program Planning Budgeting Systems and Management by
 3   Objectives as favored strategies for accountability.  These
 4   were followed in 1977 by President Carter's Zero Based
 5   Budgeting.  All of these budget techniques were resisted by
 6   school boards and local educators and have disappeared with
 7   barely any residue; and
 9        WHEREAS, in sum, both the early 20th century and the
10   recent accountability movements highlighted:  (1) business as
11   the model for educators to emulate; (2) objective measures as
12   the primary criterion for educational evaluation; and (3)
13   sophisticated accounting procedures and cost control as crucial
14   for improving education; and
16        WHEREAS, beginning in 1983, however, school reforms
17   brought with them still another wave of accountability
18   legislation, focusing this time on such concepts as school
19   report cards, merit schools, outcome-based accreditations, and
20   interstate achievement comparisons.  While the names have
21   changed, these concepts are offshoots of the historical
22   evolution; and
24        WHEREAS, while history demonstrates that effective and
25   long-lasting accountability programs are possible, it also
26   shows that maintaining them requires both a sophisticated
27   understanding of past experience and a committed political
28   constituency.  In addition, even well-designed accountability
29   techniques must be implemented through a loosely coupled
30   administrative system that includes a complex web of state and
31   local school control.  That makes it difficult to predict the
32   impact of a specific accountability policy upon classroom
33   practice and provides numerous political constituencies as
34   potential roadblocks; and
36        WHEREAS, any accountability system--whether it is
37   developed by the Legislature, the Board of Education, or the
38   Governor--needs to meet accepted standards of validity and
39   reliability and provide useful information if it is to be
40   embraced by all stakeholders and sustained over time.  These
41   standards, which also apply to the evaluation of educational
42   personnel and programs, are described by the American
43   Educational Research Association, the American Psychological
44   Association, and the National Council on Measurement in
45   Education, in Standards for Educational and Psychological
46   Testing (1985); and

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                                  H.R. NO.              

 1        WHEREAS, the Legislature, the Board of Education, and the
 2   Governor were never able to embrace--and consequently, were
 3   never able to sustain--previous educational accountability
 4   systems because the systems failed to meet accepted standards
 5   of validity and reliability or provide useful information, or
 6   both.  Despite recent educational reforms intended to make
 7   schools, the Department of Education, and the Board of
 8   Education more accountable to the public for student
 9   achievement, the Legislature and the Governor continue to be
10   dissatisfied with the results--as evidenced by repeated
11   legislative attempts to change the Board of Education from an
12   elected board to an appointed board and the proposed creation
13   of "New Century Schools" by the Governor outside the authority
14   of the Board and Department; and
16        WHEREAS, in order to break this endless stalemate, which
17   resembles a war of attrition rather than cooperative and
18   constructive decisionmaking, it is necessary for the
19   Legislature, the Board of Education, and the Governor to lay
20   aside their differences and work together to develop an
21   educational accountability system that meets accepted standards
22   of validity and reliability and provides useful information to
23   all stakeholders; now, therefore,
25        BE IT RESOLVED by the House of Representatives of the
26   Twentieth Legislature of the State of Hawaii, Regular Session
27   of 1999, that the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the
28   House of Representatives, the Governor, and the Chairperson of
29   the Board of Education are requested to appoint a temporary
30   advisory commission to develop an educational accountability
31   system that meets accepted standards of validity and
32   reliability and provides useful information to all
33   stakeholders; and
35        BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the advisory commission is
36   requested to be comprised of not more than eight voting
37   members:  two of whom are appointed by the President of the
38   Senate; two of whom are appointed by the Speaker of the House
39   of Representatives; two of whom are appointed by the Governor;
40   two of whom are appointed by the Chairperson of the Board of
41   Education; and
43        BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Superintendent of
44   Education is requested to chair the commission and to serve as
45   an ex officio nonvoting member of the commission; and

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                                  H.R. NO.              

 1        BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Department of Education,
 2   the Department of Budget and Finance, the Department of Human
 3   Resources Development, and the Legislative Reference Bureau are
 4   requested to provide technical assistance to the commission on
 5   such matters as the financial system and organizational
 6   structure of the Department of Education, and the
 7   qualifications of key appointed and tenured individuals within
 8   the Department of Education, the state personnel system, and
 9   legislative drafting, respectively; and
11        BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the commission is requested to
12   submit a status report to the Legislature not less than twenty
13   days prior to the convening of the Regular Session of 2000,
14   describing the progress of the commission; and a final report
15   to the Legislature not less than twenty days prior to the
16   convening of the Regular Session of 2001, containing the
17   findings and recommendations of the commission; and
19        BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that certified copies of this
20   Resolution be transmitted to the President of the Senate, the
21   Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Governor, the
22   Chairperson of the Board of Education, the Superintendent of
23   Education, the Director of Finance, the Director of Human
24   Resources Development, and the Director of the Legislative
25   Reference Bureau.
29                         OFFERED BY:  ____________________________