B. Income and Indemnity Benefits
§386-31 Total disability. (a) Permanent total disability. Where a work injury causes permanent total disability the employer shall pay the injured employee a weekly benefit equal to sixty-six and two-thirds per cent of the employee's average weekly wages, subject to the following limitation:
Beginning January 1, 1975, and during each succeeding twelve-month period thereafter, not more than the state average weekly wage last determined by the director, rounded to the nearest dollar, nor less than $38 or twenty-five per cent of the foregoing maximum amount, rounded to the nearest dollar, whichever is higher.
In the case of the following injuries, the disability caused thereby shall be deemed permanent and total:
(1) The permanent and total loss of sight in both eyes;
(2) The loss of both feet at or before the ankle;
(3) The loss of both hands at or above the wrist;
(4) The loss of one hand and one foot;
(5) An injury to the spine resulting in permanent and complete paralysis of both legs or both arms or one leg and one arm;
(6) An injury to the skull resulting in incurable imbecility or insanity.
In all other cases the permanency and totality of the disability shall be determined on the facts. No adjudication of permanent total disability shall be made until after two weeks from the date of the injury.
(b) Temporary total disability. Where a work injury causes total disability not determined to be permanent in character, the employer, for the duration of the disability, but not including the first three calendar days thereof, shall pay the injured employee a weekly benefit at the rate of sixty-six and two-thirds per cent of the employee's average weekly wages, subject to the limitations on weekly benefit rates prescribed in subsection (a), or if the employee's average weekly wages are less than the minimum weekly benefit rate prescribed in subsection (a), at the rate of one hundred per cent of the employee's average weekly wages.
If an employee is unable to complete a regular daily work shift due to a work injury, the employee shall be deemed totally disabled for work for that day.
The employer shall pay temporary total disability benefits promptly as they accrue to the person entitled thereto without waiting for a decision from the director, unless this right is controverted by the employer in the employer's initial report of industrial injury. The first payment of benefits shall become due and shall be paid no later than on the tenth day after the employer has been notified of the occurrence of the total disability, and thereafter the benefits due shall be paid weekly except as otherwise authorized pursuant to section 386-53.
The payment of these benefits shall only be terminated upon order of the director or if the employee is able to resume work. When the employer is of the opinion that temporary total disability benefits should be terminated because the injured employee is able to resume work, the employer shall notify the employee and the director in writing of an intent to terminate the benefits at least two weeks prior to the date when the last payment is to be made. The notice shall give the reason for stopping payment and shall inform the employee that the employee may make a written request to the director for a hearing if the employee disagrees with the employer. Upon receipt of the request from the employee, the director shall conduct a hearing as expeditiously as possible and render a prompt decision as specified in section 386-86. If the employee is unable to perform light work, if offered, temporary total disability benefits shall not be discontinued based solely on the inability to perform or continue to perform light work.
An employer or insurance carrier who fails to comply with this section shall pay not more than $5,000 into the special compensation fund upon the order of the director, in addition to other penalties prescribed in section 386-92.
(1) If the director determines, based upon a review of medical records and reports and other relevant documentary evidence, that an injured employee's medical condition may be stabilized and the employee is unable to return to the employee's regular job, the director shall issue a preliminary decision regarding the employee's entitlement and limitation to benefits and rights under Hawaii's workers' compensation laws. The preliminary decision shall be sent to the affected employee and the employee's designated representative and the employer and the employer's designated representative and shall state that any party disagreeing with the director's preliminary findings of medical stabilization and work limitations may request a hearing within twenty days of the date of the decision. The director shall be available to answer any questions during the twenty-day period from the injured employee and affected employer. If neither party requests a hearing challenging the director's finding the determination shall be deemed accepted and binding upon the parties. In any case where a hearing is held on the preliminary findings, any person aggrieved by the director's decision and order may appeal under section 386-87.
A preliminary decision of the director shall inform the injured employee and the employer of the following responsibilities, benefits, and limitations on vocational rehabilitation benefits that are designed to facilitate the injured employee's early return to suitable gainful employment:
(A) That the injured employee may invoke the employee's rights under section 378-2, 378-32, or 386-142, or all of them, in the event of unlawful discrimination or other unlawful employment practice by the employer; and
(B) That after termination of temporary total disability benefits, an injured employee who resumes work may be entitled to permanent partial disability benefits, which if awarded, shall be paid regardless of the earnings or employment status of the disabled employee at the time.
(2) If the rehabilitation unit determines that an injured employee is not a feasible candidate for rehabilitation and that the employee is unable to resume the employee's regular job, it shall promptly certify the same to the director. Soon thereafter, the director shall conduct a hearing to determine whether the injured employee remains temporarily totally disabled, or whether the employee is permanently partially disabled, or permanently totally disabled. [L 1963, c 116, pt of §1; am L 1965, c 152, §1(a); Supp, §97-30; am L 1967, c 138, §1; HRS §386-31; am L 1969, c 18, §1; am L 1972, c 42, §1; am L 1974, c 153, §2; am L 1975, c 107, §1; am L 1979, c 66, §1; am L 1985, c 296, §3; gen ch 1985; am L 1988, c 37, §1; am L Sp 2005, c 11, §6; am L 2016, c 187, §1]
Right to compensation presupposes disability for work, either total or partial. 34 H. 317 (1937).
"Average", "weekly" defined. 37 H. 517 (1947).
Burden of proof for claimants under odd-lot doctrine discussed. 72 H. 272, 813 P.2d 1386 (1991).
Claimant's temporary total disability payments properly terminated where director's review of medical records and reports found claimant's condition stable and claimant was not feasible candidate for rehabilitation because of lack of motivation. 80 H. 239, 909 P.2d 567 (1996).
Administrative penalties authorized by subsection (b) and §386-92 not intended to provide an injured worker's exclusive remedy for injuries resulting from an insurer's tortious delay or termination of benefits. 83 H. 457, 927 P.2d 858 (1996).
A decision that finally adjudicates the matter of medical and temporary disability benefits under §§386-21, 386-32(b), and subsection (b) is an appealable final order under §91-14(a), even though the matter of permanent disability benefits under §386-32(a) and subsection (a) has been left for later determination. 89 H. 436, 974 P.2d 1026 (1999).
The date-of-death maximum weekly benefit rate should be used to calculate death benefits. 109 H. 255, 125 P.3d 476 (2005).
Odd-lot doctrine. 2 H. App. 659, 638 P.2d 1381 (1982).
Cited: 32 H. 920, 924 (1933); 34 H. 65, 70 (1937).