§182-1  Definitions.  In this chapter, if not inconsistent with the context:

     "Board" means the board of land and natural resources.

     "Department" means the department of land and natural resources.

     "Force majeure" means any fire, explosion, flood, volcanic activity, seismic or tidal wave, mobilization, war (whether declared or undeclared), act of any belligerent [of] any such war, riot, rebellion, the elements, power shortages, strike, lock-out, difference of workers, any cause which prevents the economic mining of the lease, or any other cause beyond the reasonable control of the party affected, whether or not of the nature or character hereinabove specifically enumerated.

     "Geothermal resources" means the natural heat of the earth, the energy, in whatever form, below the surface of the earth present in, resulting from, or created by, or which may be extracted from, such natural heat, and all minerals in solution or other products obtained from naturally heated fluids, brines, associated gases, and steam, in whatever form, found below the surface of the earth, but excluding oil, hydrocarbon gas, other hydrocarbon substances, and any water, mineral in solution, or other product obtained from naturally heated fluids, brines, associated gases, and steam, in whatever form, found below the surface of the earth, and not used for electrical power generation.

     "Geothermal resources development" means the development or production of electrical energy from geothermal resources and direct use application of geothermal resources.  The term does not include "geothermal resources exploration".

     "Geothermal resources exploration" means either of the following:

     (1)  Conducting non-invasive geophysical operations, including geochemical operations, remote sensing, and other similar techniques; or

     (2)  Drilling exploration wells for purposes including but not limited to the extraction and removal of minerals of types and quantities;

that are reasonably required for testing and analysis to provide ground truth or determine the economic viability of geothermal resources.  The term does not include "geothermal resources development".

     "Minerals" means any or all of the oil, gas, coal, phosphate, sodium, sulphur, iron, titanium, gold, silver, bauxite, bauxitic clay, diaspore, boehmite, laterite, gibbsite, alumina, all ores of aluminum and, without limitation thereon, all other mineral substances and ore deposits whether solid, gaseous, or liquid, including all geothermal resources, in, on, or under any land, fast or submerged; but does not include sand, rock, gravel, and other materials suitable for use and used in general construction.

     "Mining lease" means a lease of the right to conduct mining operations, including geothermal resource exploration or development, on state lands and reserved lands.

     "Mining operations" means the process of excavation, extraction, and removal of minerals, and the exploration or development of any and all geothermal resources, from the ground, design engineering, other engineering, erection of transportation facilities and port facilities, erection of necessary plants, other necessary operations or development approved by the board preceding or connected with the actual extraction of minerals and the exploration or development of geothermal resources.

     "Occupier" means any person who owns in fee the surface of the land or any person entitled to the possession of land under a certificate of occupation, a nine hundred and ninety-nine year homestead lease, a right of purchase lease, a cash freehold agreement, and any person entitled to possession under a general lease from the State, and also means and includes the assignee of any one of the above.

     "Reserved lands" means those lands owned or leased by any person in which the State or its predecessors in interest has reserved to itself expressly or by implication the minerals or right to mine minerals, or both.

     "State lands" includes all public and other lands owned or in possession, use and control of the then Territory of Hawaii or the State of Hawaii, or any of its agencies and this chapter shall apply thereto. [L 1963, c 11, pt of §1; Supp, §99A-1; HRS §182-1; am L 1974, c 241, §2; am L 1978, c 135, §1; am L 1990, c 207, §1; gen ch 1993; am L 2012, c 97, §2; am L 2016, c 220, §2]


Case Notes


  Reservation of mineral rights in royal patent issued on land commission award, validity of.  49 H. 429, 421 P.2d 570.