Section 16.  The provisions of this constitution shall be self-executing to the fullest extent that their respective natures permit. [Ren Const Con 1968 and election Nov 5, 1968; ren and am Const Con 1978 and election Nov 7, 1978]


Law Journals and Reviews


  Ala Loop and the Private Right of Action Under Hawai‘i Constitution Article XI, Section 9:  Charting a Path Toward a Cohesive Enforcement Scheme.  33 UH L. Rev. 367 (2010).

  A Self-Executing Article XI, Section 9--The Door For a Bivens Action for Environmental Rights?  34 UH L. Rev. 187 (2012).


Case Notes


  This provision does not constitute waiver of sovereign immunity for money damages for constitutional deprivations.  61 H. 369, 604 P.2d 1198.

  Test for determining whether a constitutional provision is self-executing.  63 H. 412, 629 P.2d 1111.



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