Section 4.  English and Hawaiian shall be the official languages of Hawaii, except that Hawaiian shall be required for public acts and transactions only as provided by law. [Add Const Con 1978 and election Nov 7, 1978]


Cross References


  Statutory provisions, see §§1-13 and 13.5.


Law Journals and Reviews


  Judicial Enforcement of "Official" Indigenous Languages:  A Comparative Analysis of the Maori and Hawaiian Struggles for Cultural Language Rights.  26 UH L. Rev. 495.

  "Officially" What?  The Legal Rights and Implications of `Ōlelo Hawai`i.  30 UH L. Rev. 243.

  Translation v. Tradition:  Fighting for Equal Standardized Testing ma ka `Ōlelo Hawai`i.  36 UH L. Rev. 487 (2014).

  "Language Is Never About Language":  Eliminating Language Bias in Federal Education Law to Further Indigenous Rights.  37 UH L. Rev. 381 (2015).

  Tales from the Dark Side of the Archives:  Making History in Hawai`i Without Hawaiians.  39 UH L. Rev. 537 (2017).


Case Notes


  Court rejected plaintiff's contention that the Hawaii constitution prohibited the court from mandating that plaintiff give deposition testimony in English.  843 F. Supp. 630.



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