Section 14.  No law shall be passed except by bill.  Each law shall embrace but one subject, which shall be expressed in its title.  The enacting clause of each law shall be, "Be it enacted by the legislature of the State of Hawaii." [Ren Const Con 1978 and election Nov 7, 1978]


Attorney General Opinions


  The combining of the operating budget, capital improvement budget, salary increase and revenue measure or any two of them in one bill violates this section.  Att. Gen. Op. 65-7.

  Bill may be entitled "Relating to Taxation."  Att. Gen. Op. 65-14.

  Cited in passing on effect of resolution.  Att. Gen. Op. 68-6.

  Discussed in holding §7 of Act 202, Session Laws 1972, invalid because not germane to the subject of the act.  Att. Gen. Op. 72-16.

  Invalidity of part does not necessarily invalidate entire act.  Att. Gen. Op. 72-16.

  If contents of bill are germane to original statute, reference in title to sections of statute to be amended is sufficient indication of subject of legislation.  Att. Gen. Op. 74-8.

  Purpose of section.  Att. Gen. Op. 74-8.

  Title does not contain more than one subject if all its details relate to same subject.  Att. Gen. Op. 74-8.

  Violated by budget proviso concerning subject not expressed in title of budget act.  Att. Gen. Op. 86-8.


Case Notes


  For annotations relating to similar provisions of prior law, see notes to Organic Act, §45.

  Provision pertaining to subject is to be liberally construed.  58 H. 25, 564 P.2d 135.

  Purposes of one-subject requirement are to prevent logrolling legislation, to prevent surprise or fraud upon the legislature, to apprise the people.  58 H. 25, 564 P.2d 135.

  Section is mandatory and a violation would render an enactment nugatory, but an enactment is presumptively constitutional.  58 H. 25, 564 P.2d 135.

  Prohibition against legislation with more than one subject does not apply to constitutional amendments.  60 H. 324, 590 P.2d 543.

  This article and article XVII of the Hawaii constitution require that (1) a proposal to amend the constitution must be reflected in the title of the bill and (2) a proposed constitutional amendment must be read three times in each house of the legislature to be validly adopted; where bill failed to fulfill these requirements, it was not constitutionally adopted.  108 H. 245, 118 P.3d 1188.

  Cited:  48 H. 152, 160, 397 P.2d 593; 53 H. 327, 493 P.2d 306.