Section 23.  The legislature shall have the power to reserve marriage to opposite-sex couples. [Add HB 117 (1997) and election Nov 3, 1998]


Attorney General Opinions


  This section does not require that marriages be limited to opposite-sex couples.  Instead the section provides that the legislature possesses the authority to limit marriages to opposite-sex couples by statute, should it choose to do so.  Att. Gen. Op. 13-1.


Law Journals and Reviews


  The Hawai‘i Marriage Amendment:  Its Origins, Meaning and Fate.  22 UH L. Rev. 19.

  The Future of Same-Sex Marriage.  22 UH L. Rev. 119.

  The Fine Line Between Love and the Law:  Hawaii's Attempt to Resolve the Same-Sex Marriage Issue.  22 UH L. Rev. 149.

  The Defense of Marriage Act:  Sex and the Citizen.  24 UH L. Rev. 279.

  The Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships:  Comparative Institutional Analysis, Contested Social Goals, and Strategic Institutional Choice.  28 UH L. Rev. 23.

  Free Exercise and Hybrid Rights:  An Alternative Perspective on the Constitutionality of Same-Sex Marriage Bans.  29 UH L. Rev. 23.

  Judicial Review and Sexual Freedom.  30 UH L. Rev. 1.

  The State Marriage Cases:  Implications for Hawai‘i's Marriage Equality Debate in the Post-Lawrence and Romer Era.  31 UH L. Rev. 653 (2009).

  Tax Justice and Same-Sex Domestic Partner Health Benefits:  An Analysis of the Tax Equity For Health Plan Beneficiaries Act.  32 UH L. Rev. 73 (2009).


Case Notes


  Hawaii's marriage laws (this section and §572-1) are rationally related to legitimate government interests; thus, they do not violate the equal protection clause or the due process clause of the U.S. Constitution.  884 F. Supp. 2d 1065 (2012).



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